1,000th anniversary of the birth of Avicenna
Vakhidov VV. Khirurgiia (Mosk) 1980;:110-4
A new Snellen's visual acuity chart with 'Indian' numerals.
Br J Ophthalmol 1987;:923-5
'Indian' numerals, which are popular among the Arab population, were used to devise a new
Snellen's visual acuity chart. The new chart has the advantages of a reading chart. It
keeps the patient's interest, does not miss alexic patients, and is quicker to perform. It
is also devoid of the many disadvantages of a kinetic response chart (the capital E letter
or Landolt's broken rings), especially that of the limited option of test objects.
A precedent for modern psychotherapeutic techniques: one thousand years ago.
Am J Psychiatry 1972;:1581-4
A retrospective study of cataract among Arabs residing in Kuwait.
al Samarrai AR, Noor Sunba MS.
Dev Ophthalmol 1991;:46-8
Abu Ali ibn-Sina (Avicenna) - an outstanding physician and philosopher of the Middle
Ages (on the millennium of his birth)
Sov Med 1980;:119-21
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) and his scientific and medical legacy
Vrach Delo 1980;:1-6
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) on leprosy
Abdullaev AKh, Sharafiddinov TA.
Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1981;:76-9
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) on physical exercises and massage
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 1981;:66-7
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), on the millennium of his birth
Vestn Khir 1980;:142-6
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina and medical ethics
Klin Med (Mosk) 1980;:112-4
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina and pharmacology; on the millennium of the birth of Avicenna
Denisenko PP, Nuraliev Iun.
Farmakol Toksikol 1980;:753-4
Abu Ali Ibn-Sina and the importance of his scientific legacy in the history of obstetrics
Asimova MZ, Kuznetsov VK, Piotrovskii SM.
Feldsher Akush 1980;:59-61
African neurosurgery. 1: Historical outline
el Khamlichi A.
This outline of the history of African Neurosurgery explains the role that North Africa
has played in the Middle Ages in the development of Neurosurgery, the origins of the
development of the latter in twentieth century, and the delay that African Neurosurgery
still shows at the present time in the majority of African countries. On the papyrus of
the pharaonic era, we have found the description of some neurosurgical procedures such as
trephination and brain aspiration by a transphenoidal approach used before mummification.
It is particularly trephination which summarizes the ancient history of African
neurosurgery, as it was widely used throughout the continent, practised and taught by
healers in African tribes. The technical concepts of trephination are based, to a great
extent, on the descriptions of Arab physicians of the Middle Ages. It was at that time
(Middle Ages) that several Arab physicians such as Avicenne, Rhazes, and Avenzhoer
described many types of nervous system diseases and the techniques to treat them. But it
was mainly Abulkassim Al Zahraoui (Abulkassis) who was the pioneer of neurosurgery as he
devoted one volume of his treatise (made up of 30 volumes) to neurosurgery, a precise
description of many aspects of neurosurgical pathology, its treatment, instruments and
neurosurgical techniques. We have reported in this article five original extracts in
Arabic which deal with skull fractures and their treatment, vertebro- medullary traumas
and their treatment, hydrocephalus and its treatment, tumors of the skull vault and their
treatment, and finally the basic knowledge of anatomy which is of great interest for a
surgeon. The medical knowledge of that time which gave birth to medical schools and
hospitals was transmitted progressively to Europe and played an important role in the
development of medicine during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries. During colonization, neurosurgical practice started and developed in many
African countries, together with the development of the health system that the colonial
forces initiated in general as soon as they had come to these countries. This neurosurgery
practised in the departments of general surgery either by neurosurgeons or general
surgeons took part in the birth and development of neurosurgery as an independent
specialty, thanks to the combined efforts of some European and African pioneers. Modern
neurosurgery was introduced and started to develop in African countries from 1960, and the
teaching of this specialty in many African universities began between 1960 and 1970.
African neurosurgery. 2: Current status and future prospects
el Khamlichi A.
A survey conducted among African neurosurgeons shows that there are nowadays 500
neurosurgeons in Africa, that is one neurosurgeon for 1,350,000 inhabitants, and 70,000
km2. The distribution of these neurosurgeons shows a striking regional disparity: North
Africa has 354 neurosurgeons for 119 million inhabitants, that is one neurosurgeon for
338,000 inhabitants, and South Africa has 65 neurosurgeons for 40 million inhabitants,
that is one neurosurgeon for 620,000 inhabitants. Between these two areas where
neurosurgery is developing quite well, we have the majority of African countries with a
scanty density of neurosurgeons (81 neurosurgeons for 515 million inhabitants, that is one
neurosurgeon for 6,368,000 inhabitants). The Panafrican Association of Neurological
Sciences "PAANS" brings together the African neurosurgeons. This continental
African Association represents African neurosurgeons in the WFNS. In addition to this
continental Association, there are national societies of neurosciences. However, there are
only six Societies of Neurosurgery. Two systems of training exist in Africa: local
training and training abroad. These two systems have unequal quality and specific
difficulties which have already been pointed out. Among the optimistic elements which make
us believe in the development of neurosurgery in Africa are the existence of a quite good
level of neurosurgery at the two extremities of the continent (North Africa and South
Africa), the development of neurosciences in the African universities, and the increasing
interest that the international community bears to Africa in the last years. However, the
real factor of optimism is the African neurosurgeons who should promote neurosurgery in
their continent, at the level of their own countries by developing information and health
education, setting their specialty in the education syllabus and health planning, and
settling into active and performing societies. At the continental and international level,
African neurosurgeons should institutionalize inter-African cooperation, expedite their
continental association (PAANS), and further exchanges with the other continents through
the SNCLF (Société de Neurochirurgie de Langue Francaise). The latter, together with
other associations such as the EANS (European Association of Neurosurgical Societies) and
WFNS (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies) could provide help to the development
of Neurosurgery in Africa as far as training, exchanges, research and organization are
Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil after topical use.
Steinmann A, Schätzle M, Agathos M, Breit R.
Contact Dermatitis 1997;:268-9
An Avicenna volume in the Helikon Library of Keszthely. Venetian publication, 1564
Orv Hetil 1980;:3212-3
An Eastern genius. Remembering Avicenna on the 1000th anniversary of his birth
Orv Hetil 1980;:3207-12
Anesthesia in the works of Avicenna and anesthetic technics during the 11th century
Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 1984;:76-8
Many works concerning 19th century anaesthesia have been written. Those concerning the
Middle Ages were virtually non-existent. Paragraphs were found scattered in various
chapters of 10th and 11th century medical and surgical works dealing with the anaesthetic
techniques required by the importance of the surgical operations carried out at the time,
such as above- or through-knee amputations. Avicenna, an 11th century Arab doctor, has
written several medical works. The most famous one, the Canon, did play an important part
in medical teaching of the Middle Ages. This book included about forty plants considered
to have anaesthetic properties; a detailed description of the preparation of drugs from
these plants and of way in which these drugs were used was given. It seemed the dangers of
these drugs were known. Examples from this book made it possible to understand better the
anaesthetic practice of the time, so giving a general idea of anaesthesia in the Middle
Antimicrobial & anthelmintic activities of the essential oil of Nigella sativa Linn.
Agarwal R, Kharya MD, Shrivastava R.
Indian J Exp Biol 1979;:1264-5
Antitumor principles from Nigella sativa seeds.
Salomi NJ, Nair SC, Jayawardhanan KK, Varghese CD, Panikkar KR.
Cancer Lett 1992;:41-6
The active principle of Nigella sativa seeds containing certain fatty acids was studied
for antitumor activities against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), Dalton's lymphopenia
ascites (DLA) and Sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. In vitro cytotoxic studies showed 50%
cytotoxicity to Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Dalton's Lymphoma ascites and Sarcoma-180 cells
at a concentration of 1.5 micrograms, 3 micrograms and 1.5 micrograms respectively with
little activity against lymphocytes. The cell growth of KB cells in culture was inhibited
by the active principle while K-562 cells resumed near control values on day 2 and day 3.
Tritiated thymidine incorporation studies indicated the possible action of an active
principle at DNA level. In vivo EAC tumour development was completely inhibited by the
active principle at the dose of 2 mg/mouse per day x 10.
Arabic medicinal measurements and weights in Latin translations of Arabic medical
Sudhoffs Arch Z Wissenschaftsgesch 1985;:228-31
Arabic medicine and nephrology
Am J Nephrol 1994;:270-8
During the Dark Ages following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was
instrumental in fostering the development of the sciences, including medicine. The quest
for original manuscripts and their translation into Arabic reached its climax in the House
of Wisdom in Baghdad, and the dissemination of the compiled texts was facilitated by the
introduction of paper from the East. Foremost among the Arabic physicians were Rhazes,
Avicenna, Haly Abbas and Albucasis, who lived during the period 950-1050 AD. Their
writings not only followed Hippocrates and Galen, but also greatly extended the analytical
approach of these earlier writers. The urine was studied and the function and diseases of
the kidneys described. Despite the fact that experimentation on the human body was
prohibited by religion, some anatomic dissection and observation seems to have been
undertaken, and the pulmonary circulation was described by Ibn Nafis. Anatomic
illustrations began to appear in Arabic texts, though they did not have the detail and
artistic merit of those of Vesalius.
Invest Urol 1968;:334-5
Avicenna (Abu Ali Ibn Sina) - his life and medical activities
Wiad Lek 1981;:1405-9
Avicenna (AD 980-1037) and Arabic perinatal medicine.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1997;:F75-6
Avicenna and his regimen of old age.
Age Ageing 1987;:58-9
Avicenna and the Canon of Medicine: a millennial tribute.
West J Med 1980;:367-70
Avicenna and the care of the aged.
Avicenna and the correction of gibbosity in the 1th century
Orizz Ortop Odie Riabil 1967;:173-7
Avicenna and the roots of psychosomatic medicine
Orv Hetil 1980;:3171-3
Avicenna on food aversions and dietary prescriptions.
Allergy Proc 1992;:199-203
Avicenna on the location of houses.
Bull N Y Acad Med 1967;:250-1
Avicenna on the musculoskeletal system
Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol 1980;:112-4
A great scientist encyclopaedist of the Middle ages Abu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in his
brilliant work "Cannon of medical science" systematized and interpreted the
achievements of medical sciences, made his contribution into medical theory and practice.
If we take together all the data on bones and muscles presented by him in his "Cannon
of medical science" and arrange them in the sequence they are given in the body, a
graceful systematized table of scientific knowledge on bones and muscles--a prototype of
future osteology and myology will be obtained. In the "Canon of medical science"
sources of the functional trend in morphology are laid: structure of the osseous and
muscular systems is closely connected with the practical medicine. In his work Ibn Sina
gives a correct and precise description of anatomical structure of the osseous system and
bone functions, and the muscular system, in particular. A thorough study of the
"Canon of medical science" clearly demonstrates that Ibn Sina made a great
contribution, for his time, into the development of anatomy, not only successfully
followed his predecessors, but greatly extended their scientific researches and corrected
Avicenna or Ibn Sina (980-1036 AD).
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;:682
Avicenna the psychosomaticist
Tunis Med 1980;:552-3
Avicenna's contribution to medicine
Tunis Med 1980;:548-51
Avicenna's maxims and quotations
Tunis Med 1980;:554-5
Avicenna's recipe for contraception.
Nathan B, Mikhail M.
Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991;:1303
Avicenna's view on cancer from his Canon.
Am J Chin Med 1979;:276-84
Avicenna's views on cancer are presented from his Medical Canon. A literal translation
from Arabic has been undertaken by the author. The clinical diagnosis, the prognosis as
well as the therapeutic measures according to Avicenna are interesting to know and compare
with our views one thousand years later.
Tunis Med 1980;:543
Avicenna, a forerunner of hygiene and preventive medicine
Ann Ig 1994;:357-64
Avicenna, physician and philosopher
Rev Prat 1995;:2002-6
Avicenna, problem solving, and creativity during sleep
N Y State J Med 1990;:378
Avicenna, the prestigious scholar of the Islamic World
Chir Dent Fr 1970;:50
Avicenna, the prince of physicians. II.
Minn Med 1966;:187-92
Avicenna--a great physician and thinker
Med Arh 1993;:43-6
AVICENNA (980-1037), whose full name was Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd-Allah ibn Sina, was the
most renowned and influential medical man and philosopher of the medieval Islam. Over a
three hundred of Avicenna's works have survived, ranging from encyclopedic treatments to
short treatises and covering apart from medicine, philosophy and science, religious,
linguistic, and literary matters. He wrote some works in Persian, of which the
Danishnama-al 'Ala'i ("The Book of Science Dedicated to Ala's Dawla") is the
most important. Most of his works, however, are in Arabic. His chief medical work is
Al-Qanun fi't-tibb ("The Canon of Medicine"), a synthesis of Greek and Arabic
medicine also includes his own clinical observations and views on scientific method. The
most detailed philosophical work is the voluminous al-Shifa' ("The Healing").
Al-Najat ("The Deliverance") is largely a summary of al-Shifa', although there
are some deviations. Al-Isharat wa al-Tanbihat ("The Directives and Remarks")
gives the quintessence of Avicenna's philosophy, sometimes in an aphoristic style, and
concludes with an expression of his mystical esoteric views, a part that relates to
certain symbolic narratives which he also wrote.
Avicenna--physician-encyclopaedist and certain principles of his teachings concerning
health and disease (on the 1000th anniversary of his birth)
Fiziol Zh SSSR 1980;:1273-7
S Afr Med J 1972;:675-6
Avicenna: the Master par excellence
Tunis Med 1980;:544-7
Cardiological legacy of Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (on the millennium of his birth)
Katsenovich RA, Mirzaev NL.
Kardiologiia 1980 Nov; 20(1;:120-2
Commonly used Indian abortifacient plants with special reference to their teratologic
effects in rats.
Nath D, Sethi N, Singh RK, Jain AK.
J Ethnopharmacol 1992;:147-54
A survey programme was organised in Lucknow and Farrukhabad, two towns of Uttar Pradesh,
from March 1987 to July 1987. During the survey, the common folk medicine plants used by
women were recorded and Ayurvedic and Unani drug encyclopedias were consulted for the
anti-reproductive potential of these plants. Aqueous or 90% ethanol extracts of the plants
of interest were studied in rats orally dosed for 10 days after insemination with special
reference to effects on foetal development. Leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Adhatoda
vasica were 100% abortive at doses equivalent to 175 mg/kg of starting dry material. Only
the flowers of Acacia arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis appeared to lack teratologic
potential at the doses tested.
Concrete and abstract in medicine: the case of Ibn Sina.
de Vries A.
Isr J Med Sci 1992;:813-8
Contribution of Abu Ali ibn Sina to dermato-venereology
Belova LV, Mirakhmedov UM.
Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1983;:60-4
Contribution of Avicenna to cosmetology
Sov Zdravookhr 1984;:53-6
Contribution of Persian physicians to the development of Islamic medicine
Med Arh 1997;:9-12
In this article We have tried to reconsider the chronological appearance and influence
of Iranian physicians during periods before and after appearance of Islam until the
penetration of contemporary medicine in Iran, i.e. up to 19th century AD. The priority has
been put to mention names of scientists as well as their works and new thoughts, to
expose, without exclusivity and national attitudes, part of efforts of Iranian scientists
in medical field. My main goal and intention was: first-to correct mistakes undertaken by
some scientists who had seen books written in arabic language and so considered those
scientific works as a part of arabic-Islamic heritage, and second-to introduce and present
Iranian medical heritage of middle ages while Europe was in neglected dreams.
Dava, Daktar, and Dua: anthropology of practiced medicine in India.
Soc Sci Med 1996;:837-48
The paper explicates "practiced medicine" as an operative cross-cultural
analytic concept by locating it within previous major developments and directions of study
within anthropological studies of medicine in India, and medical anthropology more
generally. Practiced medicine in India, for example, allows us to see better how India
manages not only multiple traditional and modern medical approaches, languages,
therapeutic regimens, and Materia Medica, but it also leads us to a sustained moral,
social and material criticism from within. The study of such diversity leads to a loosely
shared, and ethnographically attestable, cultural reasoning, practice and practical ethos
across the traditional and modern medical worlds. Also appearing before us are the usually
hidden cultural assumptions, negotiations and compromises of diverse Indian medical
practitioners, and the strengths and weaknesses of modern medicine under
"normal" and "disastrous" situations in contemporary India. As India
today grapples with issues of availability, affordability, equity, and distributive
justice in medical care, its practiced medicine raises issues of "critical
consciousness" for modern (and traditional) , state supported medicine.
Diagnosis and treatment of lovesickness: an Islamic medieval case study.
Hosp Community Psychiatry 1994;:647-50
Diagnosis in the system of medical views of Ibn Sina
Klin Med (Mosk) 1979;:91-6
Digestive physiology in the works of Avicenna
Fiziol Zh SSSR 1980;:1424-8
Effect of Cuscuta chinensis water extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz
Nisa M, Akbar S, Tariq M, Hussain Z.
J Ethnopharmacol 1986 Oct; 18(1;:21-31
Cuscuta chinensis, known as Aftimun, is reputed to have antitumor activity in the Unani
system of medicine in India. The effect of a hot water extract of C. chinensis on
7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas in Swiss
albino mice was studied. Oral administration of the extract (1 g/kg body wt) thrice a week
in 22 mice, started on the tenth day after the first application of DMBA to the 252nd day,
markedly delayed the appearance and retarded the growth of papillomas and the incidence of
carcinoma, relative to a control group with 28 mice, in a two-stage system of
tumorigenesis. Its prophylactic effect was found to be statistically significant.
Effectiveness of a Unani therapy (sangesarmahi) in management of urinary stone disease.
Ahmed A, Pendse AK, Surana SS, Singh PP, Sharma PN.
Indian J Exp Biol 1993;:260-4
A Unani medicine called fish stones, an isolate from the skull of Channa sp. when given to
stone bearing patient daily in 3 equally divided doses (25 mg/capsule) for 5 days,
spontaneously voided the stone in 36% of the stone patients during 5 days of therapy. The
therapy did not influence the urinary chemistry and was not a powerful expulsion agent of
stone but did effect on ureteric muscles to facilitate the movement of stone down the
urinary tract. In guinea pigs, the therapy could not reduce the intensity of
experimentally induced hyperoxaluria but showed several other beneficial effects. It
decreased urinary uric acid and mucoprotein levels, serum LDH and ALT level; prevented
rise in liver LDH and GAO activities and kidney-LDH activity. Histological examination
revealed decreased intensity of calcification in liver, kidney and bladder tissues.
Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat
and guinea pig.
Aqel M, Shaheen R.
J Ethnopharmacol 1996;:23-6
The effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of
rats and guinea pigs was tested in vitro using isolated uterine horns. The volatile oil of
Nigella sativa seeds inhibited the spontaneous movements of rat and guinea pig uterine
smooth muscle and also the contractions induced by oxytocin stimulation. These effects
were concentration-dependent and reversible by tissue washing. These data suggest that
this volatile oil may have some anti-oxytocic potential.
Electro-acupuncture in the treatment of enuresis nocturna.
Tüzüner F, Keçik Y, Ozdemir S, Canakçi N.
Acupunct Electrother Res 1989;:211-5
In the present survey, 162 subjects with enuresis nocturna were given electro-acupuncture
therapy. Specially chosen points were inserted once a day throughout a ten day period.
After the therapy term, the success rate was evaluated as 98.2%.
Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)
Jankovic SM, Sokic DV, Levic ZM, Susic V, Drulovic J, Stojsavljevic N, Veskov R,
Srp Arh Celok Lek 1996;:217-21
The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait
of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as
well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed
its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position,
the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their
civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent
spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As
compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence
of a linguistic barriers, more scarce- as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are
Islamic medicine should be freed from the simple prejudice that the Moslem authors were
only the translators of Greek medicine; contrary to such a view, their work contains a
high degree of individuality. Although Mohammed introduced a lot of novelty into medicine,
Koran and the Sayings do not explicitly refer to epilepsy. Of importance is to notice that
Moslem medicine did not have demons in the "repertoire" of direct causes of
epilepsy. The causes and the cures of epilepsy were more magic-mystical and occult in
nature, which is reminiscent of the European, as well as Serbian Middle age attitudes.
Avicenna recognized difference between children and adult epilepsy. He considered insomnia
and afternoon siesta as well as intensive sounds and light to be a provocative factors,
whereby we see that at least empirically he knew of sleep (deprivation), startle and
reflex epilepsy. The XIII century invasion of Mongols brought about the recession in
Moslem Medicine; it recovered only in the XVIII century under the strong influence of
European medicine handed over to us through Jewish doctors of various nationalities.
Ethical principles of Abu Ali Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) and the problems of modern deontology
(on the millennium of his birth)
Vestn Rentgenol Radiol 1980;:80-2
Facial paralysis as described by Avicenna
Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 1975;:79-82
Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against
cestodes in children.
Akhtar MS, Riffat S.
JPMA J Pak Med Assoc 1991;:185-7
Antinematodal efficacy of Saussurea lappa roots (Qust-e- Shereen) and anticestodal effect
of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji) was studied in children infected naturally with the
respective worms. The activities were judged on the basis of percentage reductions in the
faecal eggs per gram (EPG) counts. The 50 mg/kg single dose of S. lappa and equivalent
amount of its methanolic extract produced on days 7 and 15 percentage EPG reduction
similar to 10 mg/ kg of pyrantel pamoate. Similarly, single oral administration of 40
mg/kg of N. sativa, equivalent amount of its ethanolic extract and 50 mg/kg of niclosamide
reduced the percentage of EPG counts not significantly different from each other on the
days 7 and 15. Therefore, it is conceivable that these indigenous medicinal plants contain
active principles effective against nematodes and cestodes. The crude drugs did not
produce any adverse side effects in the doses tested.
Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in
leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation.
Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR.
Planta Med 1995;:33-6
Samples of the expressed fixed oil from different sources of Nigella sativa seeds were
examined by thin-layer and gas chromatography for content of fixed oils and thymoquinone,
and these substances were tested as possible inhibitors of eicosanoid generation and
membrane lipid peroxidation. The crude fixed oil and pure thymoquinone both inhibited the
cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonate metabolism in rat peritoneal
leukocytes stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187, as shown by dose-dependent inhibition
of thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4, respectively. Thymoquinone was very potent, with
approximate IC50 values against 5- lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase of < 1 microgram/ml
and 3.5 micrograms/ml, respectively. Both substances also inhibited non-enzymatic
peroxidation in ox brain phospholipid liposomes, but thymoquinone was about ten times more
potent. However, the inhibition of eicosanoid generation and lipid peroxidation by the
fixed oil of N. sativa is greater than is expected from its content of thymoquinone (ca.
0.2% w/v), and it is possible that other components such as the unusual C20: 2 unsaturated
fatty acids may contribute also to its anti- eicosanoid and antioxidant activity. These
pharmacological properties of the oil support the traditional use of N. sativa and its
derived products as a treatment for rheumatism and related inflammatory diseases.
From Avicenna to family practice
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1997;:86-7